Uganda is fast becoming a top draw destination for travellers from all over the world that are looking for the perfect and complete African safari. The relatively small size of Uganda notwithstanding, on offer is the best of everything that Africa poses. The sheer variety that Uganda has can be seen in the landscapes, topography, plant life, wildlife, birdlife, culture and peoples – is mind-boggling, and guaranteed to captivate all types of travellers, whatever their interest. The star attractions are the endangered mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable Forest and the Chimpanzees of Kibale Forest – Uganda is the only country that has two of the three great apes located inside her borders. But, those that dare to discover and seek out Uganda’s treasures will be blown away by the remarkable variety of activities, encounters and memories that wait around each bend! Uganda has it all, Wildlife, Culture, Heritage and Tradition, isn’t it time you discovered Uganda with Let’s Go Travel?
The Pearl of Africa
Situated at the geographical heart of the African continent, Uganda, well known as The Pearl of Africa, has always been a top draw destination for travellers from all over the world. Back in the 60’s a cruise on Murchison Falls area of the river Nile was part of the quintessential safari experience. And it is not surprising why, because Uganda is a land of huge contrasts and a truly wild and exciting country to explore.
The Pearl of Africa, travellers find the best of everything that Africa has to offer – gorilla and chimpanzee trekking; ‘BIG 5’ game viewing; the tallest mountain range on the continent; the source of the world’s longest river, the mighty River Nile; and the largest freshwater lake in Africa. The Pearl of African is just as well known for her friendly and hospitable peoples and their robust cultures that have stood the test of time.
Uganda - A Short History
The First Kingdoms
It is widely accepted that man’s earliest ancestors have inhabited East Africa, for millions of years and that hunter-gatherer pygmoid people (Batwa ancestors) probably moved into the region about 3,000 years ago. Close behind them in 2,000BC were the Bantu-speakers who came from West Africa in one of the largest human migrations in history, the Bantu Migration. The Bantu people gradually took over most of sub-Saharan Africa, displacing the small bands of indigenous hunter-gatherers, who relocated to the mountains and forests. All Bantu-speaking tribes share a linguistic core and generally use derivatives of ‘ntu’ to mean man. In Uganda, the Bantu-speakers naturally chose to settle in the more fertile southern half of Uganda.
The Bantu-speaking people brought with them Iron Age tools that improved agriculture, and a culture built around a more settled life. Around AD1500, three kingdoms rose up – Bunyoro, Buganda and Ankole. Initially, Bunyoro was the largest and most centralised with a strong economy on account of its salt mines, however, by the late 1700’s, the Buganda Kingdom supplanted Bunyoro as the major regional power. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which at this time controlled a large territory bordering Lake Victoria, from the Victoria Nile to the Kagera River. Also starting around 1500BC were other migration waves that brought the Nilotic-speaking Luo who settled in Northern Uganda.
The Colonial Era
Uganda was one of the last parts of the African continent to be breached by outsiders. First came the Arab slave traders and ivory merchants in the 1840’s, followed closely by Europeans Explorers. A British explorer John Hanning Speke stumbled on the Buganda Kingdom on his quest to locate the Source of the River Nile, which had baffled European academia for millennia. On his maiden visit to the Buganda court, Speke convinced the Kabaka to open his borders to missionaries, who followed in quick succession. The first Anglican missionaries arrived in Uganda in 1877 and the Roman Catholic missionaries in 1879.
Next came trade and in 1888 the British government gave the British East Africa Company control of the region from the east coast to Buganda. Buganda was formally declared a British Protectorate in 1894 and two years later British control extended to the western kingdoms of Ankole, Toro and Bunyoro, which together with Buganda formed the Uganda Protectorate. Once Uganda was declared a colony, the power and influence of traditional Kings and Chief’s and of their mighty kingdoms waned significantly, as the British attempted to centralize the colony by integrating several territories and tribes.
Uganda, as it is known today really, began to take shape in the first half of the twentieth century. Major cash crops like cotton, coffee and tea were introduced and grown for export, transport systems were developed, conservation reserves were designated across the country, missionaries built schools and literacy for Ugandans increased, leading to the formation of the first legislative councils in 1920. The wind of change that was blowing through Africa starting in the late 1950’s reached Uganda in 1962 when Uganda became an independent nation.
The Birth of a Nation
On October 9th 1962, Uganda gained independence from Britain as a parliamentary democratic monarchy with traditional kingdoms Ankole, Buganda, Bunyoro and Toro receiving federal status and a degree of autonomy. Milton Obote took the helm as Prime Minister, and Kabaka Edward Mutesa held the largely ceremonial position of President. Uneasy about the size and influence of Buganda, Obote staged a coup in 1966 and attached the Kabaka’s palace. The Kabaka fled to Britain and Obote abolished all hereditary kingdoms, ended federalism and took over as Executive President. Obote was himself deposed in 1971 when one of his army generals, the infamous Idi Amin staged a coup and took over as president.
For many Ugandans, the Amin years from 1791-1979 were the darkest that Uganda has ever experienced, in which an estimated 100,000 people were killed. In 1972, all Asians were forcefully and hurriedly expelled from Uganda, leaving the Ugandan economy in a fix as Amin’s cronies pilfered and bankrupted departed Asian businesses. A joint Uganda-Tanzanian army ousted Amin in 1979 and Obote returned after a fresh election. Not everyone accepted the outcome of the 1981 elections that were believed to have been rigged to favour Obote.
Yoweri Museveni formed a guerrilla army, the National Resistance Army that gradually captured more and more Ugandan territory until 1986 when the capital, Kampala was taken, and Museveni was sworn in as president. In the 30 years since, Uganda has enjoyed great stability and economic growth, although many question the failure of Museveni to take a step back and hand over power. In 1993 traditional kings were restored and given cultural authority but no political power.
With increased stability in Uganda, tourism has finally taken centre stage; control of illegal poaching and encroachment on designated protected areas, the National Parks, has led to an increase wildlife numbers, conservation reserves have been gazetted to provide sanctuary to threatened species, new infrastructure has improved access to Uganda’s greatest attractions, and peace has increased global confidence in Uganda as a destination of choice.
Nature & Conservation
Uganda is situated at the intersection of the sprawling savannahs of East Africa, the primordial rainforests of West Africa, and the semi-arid Sahelian zone of North Africa. In the middle of this eclectic mix of vegetation zones are some of the world’s easily identifiable geographical landmarks – the world’s longest river, River Nile; the world’s second largest lake, Lake Victoria; Africa’s highest mountain range, the Rwenzori Mountains, Africa’s highest solitary volcano, Mt. Elgon; Africa’s oldest rainforest, Bwindi Impenetrable Forest; the western arm of the African rift valley, the Albertine Rift Valley, and the Equator. With such a varied mix of habitats, it is no surprise that Uganda offers all the ‘Big 5’ – Rhino, Elephant, Leopard, Cape Buffalo and Lions – in addition to the 2 great apes; Chimpanzee and Mountain Gorilla.
Uganda's Top Experiences
There is nowhere else in the world that on one safari, you can; spend an hour following chimpanzees and mountain gorillas through dense rainforests, lunch at the equator then proceed to conquer the snow-capped peaks of Africa’s highest ranges, spot hundreds of species of birds in just one day, watch the ‘Big 5’ roam the wild, kayak some of the world’s most spectacular rapids, and for a firm finish, immerse yourself in an authentic cultural experience exploring traditions that go back hundreds of years.